Sunday, October 16, 2011

Germans of the Holy Roman Empire in Artwork (1500-1510): Landsknecht

There are various categories for German dress in the Holy Roman Empire and I cannot even scratch the surface on all the ways they can be organized.  

My plan of action became thus...  I'm going to start with time frame and use class as my subcategory.  Therefore, to keep things reasonably round and balanced, I am going to go through what artwork I can find and share them in 10 year increments sorted by the class of the individuals within the artwork.  If 10 years becomes more than one post will allow, then I will break it down further, but until that eventuality, 10 years works for me.  To keep the classes simple I am using Urban (which includes any class above a peasant that generally lived within a city), Soldier, Camp Follower/Frau, Peasants and Children.

Let's start with the land soldiers or Landsknechte for no other reason than it tickled my fancy at the time. My overall analysis for this particular span of time is that their general style of clothing was already recognizable as Landsknecht, but you don't see some of the more flamboyant extravagances that are easily discernible in later artwork.  For lack of any other description this is pretty staid for the Landsknechte.  The most flamboyant parts of the costume appear to be the sleeves.

I am aware that there are different ranks among the soldiers that I've depicted here, but I'm afraid that breaking them out by rank is beyond what I want to attempt currently.  I'm also afraid that describing their outfits with even a semblance of correct costume terminology is at present beyond me.  I know what I see, but I don't know how to communicate that.

The Crucifixion by Daniel Hopfer (c1500-36)
Note on The Crucifixion: This piece could easily fall outside this time frame and if I find that it doesn't fit the over 'feel' of the costumes represented by the other artwork, it will be moved, though this Landsknecht is somewhat conspicuous without his codpiece.

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilians I, BSB Cod.icon.222, 29r (c1502)

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilian I - BSB Cod.icon.222, 71r (c1502)

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilian I - BSB Cod.icon.222, 71v (c1502)

My general opinion is that the shredded sleeves of both the previous image and the one following are very stylized.  It wouldn't surprise me if the sleeves were in fact shredded to some degree, but this is definitely over the top.

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilian I - BSB Cod.icon.222, 72r (c1502)

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilian I - BSB Cod.icon.222, 73r (c1502)

Zeugbuch Kaiser Maximilian I - BSB Cod.icon.222, 295r (c1502)
This next set of three drawings are all from Paul Dolstein, who is rumored to have fought during the Swabian War and various confrontations surrounding it.

Landsknechts by Paul Dolstein (c1500-03)

Lansknecht Musicians by Paul Dolstein (c1500-03)

Landsknechts by Paul Dolstein (c1500-03)

Calvary [Kalvarienberg] by Albrecht Dürer (1502) - Landsknecht Detail

Calvary [Kalvarienberg] by Albrecht Dürer (1502) - Landsknecht Detail

Calvary [Kalvarienberg] by Albrecht Dürer (1502) - Landsknecht Detail

The Green Passion: Christ on the Cross by Albrecht Dürer (c1503-04) - Landknecht Detail

The Green Passion: Ecce Homo by Albrecht Dürer (c1503-04) - Landsknecht Detail

Landknecht from Behind by Albrecht Dürer (c1503-04)

This next piece by Lucas Cranach the Elder is the definite odd-ball in the group.  It is, beyond a doubt, the most flamboyant set in this entire group of drawings.

Landsknecht by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1505)

Landsknecht by Albrecht Altdorfer (1506)

Landsknecht with a Prostitute by Albrecht Altdorfer (c1506) - Landsknecht Detail

Even though this next piece is attributed to Hans Süß von Kulmbach, it obviously has Albrecht Dürer's initials in the bottom left corner, therefore, there is a bit of a question for me over the author of this piece.

Landsknecht by Hans Süß von Kulmbach (c1507-10)

1 comment:

Audrey Winschel said...

Helpful historical images for 1500 to 1600 German Landsknechts for costumers or reenactment.