Friday, August 3, 2012

First Municipal Laws of Augsburg, 21 Jun 1156

The following is transcribed from the original text in German and Latin as culled from Elenchus Fontium Historiae Urbanae, Vol 1 - Germany, Low Countries, Scandinavia by C.van de Kieft, J. F. Niermeyer and B. Diestelkamp, pgs. 116-120.  Some of the text has been Google translated [in bold] with more to be translated at a later date and time.  Also, if someone has a better grasp of translating Latin than Google translate, I would really appreciate any help making the translations more clear and accurate.

What I find most interesting is that of the 32 "laws" represented here, three of the laws mention beer [23, 25 & 29].  I would surmise, at least from this set of laws, that in the mid-12th century in Augsburg beer was a very popular drink and a defining area of easy corruption.  At any rate, now for the laws...



[116]

1156 Juni 21—Kaiser Friedrich I. bestätigt das in der Stadt Augsburg geltende Recht. Ältestes Augsburger Stadtrecht.
1156 June 21, Emperor Friedrich I confirmed the applicable law in the city of Augsburg. The oldest city of Augsburg law.

Original, Hauptstaatsarchiv München.

Edition: Chr. Meyer, Beiträge, S. 289-293. Keutgen, S. 90-92 Nr. 125; Altmann- 5 Bernheim, S. 403-405 Nr. 191.

I. In nomine sanctae et individuae trinitatis Fridericus divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator augustus. Notum sit omnibus Christi fidelibus tam presentibus quam futuris, qualiter Augusta civitas[1] tum neglegentia et imbecillitate episcoporum tum absentia et diuturna occupatione in longinquis partibus regum nimia enormitate juris turbata, sed precipue insolita et deo odiosa advocatorum intrinsecus et extrinsecus exactione vexata, tandem deo miserante et pio imperatore Friderico manum consolationis porrigente, Cunrado episcopo annuento jubare gloriosi juris est illustrata. Accidit namque quod predictus imperator, dum ante nominatam civitatem quadam vice intraret et quasi caliginosa oblivione sui juris fluctuantem et cecutientem inveniret, Cunradus episcopus cum universo ejusdem civitatis clero et populo se ei representaret et lacrimabilem querimoniam super hoc moveret, quod civitas nullo certo juris ordine vel termino fungeretur. Proinde pius et catholicus imperator utpote non solum armis ornatus sed etiam legibus ornatus eos ex communi consilio quo jure ex antiqua et legali institutione gubernari deberent pronunciare precepit.

At illi nichil novitatis excogitantes, nichil antiqua institutioni attentes jus advocatorum, urbis prefecti, civitatensium, omnium ordinum tocius civitatis, Adelgozo advocato et Cunrado prefecto presentibus et nichil contradicentibus, in curia Ratisponae[2] confirmatum, ut haec subscripta pagina testatur, promulgabant, et rex idipsum auctoritate sui privilegii confirmabat. Acta sunt haec anno MCLII.


II. Ex conscilio Ratisponensi, cui interfuit Heinricus tercius imperator cum multis regni obtimatibus, statutum hoc est.

1. quod et notum sit omnibus Christi fidelibus tam futuris quam presentibus qualiter Cunradus et Walterus Augustensis aecclesiae canonici et boni testimonii fratres pro obtinenda juris sui libertate ad regis curiam Ratisponae communi consilio fratrum urgente necessitate missi sunt aliisque etiam fratribus supervenientibus et ejusdem legationis verba confirmantibus, ut episcopi Hermanni et advocatorum prefatae aecclesiae dui seviens in predia fratrum injuria regia potestate principumque auctoritate [117] sedaretur ipsisque advocatis justitia, quam in Augusta, in Strubingen[3], in Gisenhusen[4] habere deberent, determinaretur.

2. Ad placitum enim cujuslibet Augustensis advocati pertinentes semel in anno, quando preceptum fuerit, omnes conveniant certis in locis, scilicet in Ettingen[5], in Strubingen[3], in Gisenhusen[4] ibique in servicium suum plus non exigant nisi duos modios tritici et duos porcos, tres urnas vini et medonis, decem urnas cervisiae et quinque modios avenae.

3. Ut autem ea, quae ad usus fratrum pertinent, minus distrahentur, subscripta omnia in usus advocatorum sunt deputata:
     tercia pars bannorum, satisfactio temeritatum, ita tamen, ut si qua dispendia res fratrum paciuntur, primum eis sua restituantur.

4. Wergelta[6] fratrum sit et manicipium pro mancipio.

5. Preterea si aliqua necessitate a preposito majore vel ab aliis Augustensis aecclesiae prelatis aut canonicis ad loca predicta vel in alia aliqua vocati fuerint, nichil a fratribus aut eorum colonis quasi sub justicia exigant, sed cum caritate hoc quod eis inpensum fuerit accipiant.

III. Justicia Augustensis civitatis haec est:
This is the justice in the city of Augsburg:

1. Quicumque violator urbanae pacis exstiterit, domino episcopo X talentis satisfacere debet
1. Whoever violates the citizens who have stood for peace, must satisfy the talents of the bishop, 10; 
        quae si non habuerit, corio et crinibus puniendus est.
        which, if he does not have, the skin and hair, is to be punished.

2. Episcopus ministerialium urbanorum et totius populi civitatis peticione prefectum unum tantum et monetarium dare debet.
2. Bishop of ministerial city and the people of the city, only one principal of a claim and must give a moneyer.

3. Item chori majoris et predictorum peticione de ipso choro plebanum dabit.
3. Also, a large choir and the choir of the said petition of the parish give.

Nunc de moneta dicamus:
Now let us speak of the coin:

4. Ex camera episcopi monetario X marce dabuntur et econtra monetarius singulis annis episcopo X talenta dabit et capellario quinque solidos.

5. Et si monetarius in falsitate deprehensus fuerit, quicquid habet publicari debet episcopo et manus ejus advocato.

6. Et quisquis absque monetarii permissione cambit argentum preter institutores civitatis, qui Coloniam[7] vadunt, quibus tantum ad decem marcas cambire est concessum, spoliat episcopi cameram.

7. Si quis monetam temerarie intraverit, carebit episcopi gracia, et si aliquem infra monetam leserit vel temerarie extraxerit, fregit cameram episcopi.

[118]
8.  Et si aliquis scienter injusta pondera habuerit, etiam spoliat cameram.


Nunc de justicia domini episcopi:
Now the justice of the bishop:

9.  De theloneo VI talenta dabuntur episcopo et quociens Auguste balneaverit duo cingula et ad mandatoum vestiri debent XII pauperes et capellario XL denarii.

10.  De curtilibus episcopop ad festivitatem sancti Michahelis IIII talenta dabuntur.

11.  Episcopus ducatum ingredientibus egredientibusque dabit.

12.  Quociens episcopus ex precepto regis pro ecclesiae suae necessitate curiam adierit, urbani X talenta ad stipendium ei dabunt, et quando Romam[8] ibit in expeditionem vel ad suam consecrationem, tunc justum est, quod civitateses praebeant ei subsidium prout apud eos peticione poterit obtinere.

13.  Apud quos injusti modii inventi fuerint episcopo XV solidos dabunt.

14.  Preterea omnis satisfactio in civitate bonis redimenda ad episcopi justiciam pertinet,
          excepta temeritate et injusticia et his etiam exceptis, qui morte plectendi sunt aut truncandi.


Et hec est urbana justicia:
And this is justice in the city:

15.  Si quis curtile annum et diem sine contradictione possederit, quod de cetero nullius impeticione respondeat, nisi hoc impetitor probaverit, quod causa hostilis necessitatis vel inopiae absens proclamare non potuerit vel quod nondum annos discretionis habuerit.
15. If anyone has got Curtilius year and a day without contradiction, that in future the answer is no impeachment, but it has attacked, that the cause of the scarcity or absence of necessity hostile to claim that he can not or do not yet have the years of discretion.

16  Item quicumque jus civitatis nactus est, nullus eum inpetere debet de jure proprietatis vel beneficii, nisi secundum urbanorum justiciam.
16. Also anyone who is, having got the right of the city, no one ought to be of the assault was delivered him by the right of the property or the benefit, of townspeople, except in accordance with justice.

17.  Item si censualis talem habet uxorem, quod filii ejus aecclesiae sunt, et censualem nummum dederit et ad tria legitima placita advocati venerit, ultra non est injuriandus, misi quod in fine vitae suae ad curiam optimum jumentum dabit et vestimenta, in quibus operari solebat, praeconi suo.
17. Also, if such a censual he has a wife, and that his sons are the church, and he has given a piece of owing a yearly rent, and to the pleas of the ordinances of the three, advocates, is come, he is no more injuriandus, I sent to the court that in the end of his life he will give the best beast and raiment, in which he was wont to work, the auctioneer their own.
          Et quisquis ei hanc justiciam infringit, episcopus ejus defensor erit, ut ubicumque census deciderit totum, quod habet, in episcopi potestate erit.
          And anyone who infringes upon him this justice, the bishop will be the defender of his, so that whenever he shall cut down the number of the whole, that he hath is in the power of the bishop will be.


De justicia advocati:
Advocates of justice:

18.  Advocatus tria legitima placita Augustae in omni anno habere debet,
[119]   et tunc nullum debet facere judicium, nisi urbanorum justicia et nunquam judicandi causa Augustam veniet, nisi vocatus, exceptis suis tribus legitimis placitis.

19.  Ad justiciam advocati pertinet temeritas injusticia monomachia.

20.  Et ad tria placita illa quilibet carnifex ad servicium advocati duos tantum denarios dabit et quilibet panifex unum denarium tantum.
          Bannorum tabernariorum duae partes episcopo, tercia autem pars advocato erit ad illa tria placita,
          et de quolibet modio, in quibus est sal, dimidiam denariatam habebit ad servicium advocatus.


Nunc etiam de prefecti justiciam dicemus:
Now also been placed in charge of the justice to say:

21.  Urbis prefectus cottidie in judicio sedere debet secundum urbanorum justiciam.
21.   Every day the prefect of the city is to sit in judgment and should be referred to as justice.

22.  Et semper in unoquoque mense precipiet deconqui probaticios panes secundum judicium frigide aquae;
22. And always in the order each month deconqui probaticios bread according to the judgment of cold water;
          et quicumque panifex hos panes vilicaverit, prefecto quinque solidos dabit, et si secundo fecerit, iterum prefecto quinque solidos, et si tercio urbanorum justicia cute et crinibus punietur et tunc abjurabit penitus deconqui panes in civitate.
          and all these BAKER vilicaverit bread, will give a course of five shillings, and if he does, again, the principal of five shillings, and a third of city shall be punished by a justice of the skin and hair, and then completely abjurabit deconqui bread in the city.

23.  Et quando tabernarius vilem facit cervisiam vel etiam dat injustam mensuram, supradicto ordine punietur, et insuper cadem cervisia destrue [tur vel pauperibus gratis] erogetur.
23. And when the tavern has a cheap beer, or even an unjust measure, shall be punished by the said order, and the same beer down, [that are poor or free of charge] should be paid.

24.  Unusquisque panifex ad nativitatem domini IIII denarios prefecto dabit et ad pascha IIII, in depositione carnium gallinam.
24. BAKER 4 pence each to the Nativity of the Lord will give the governor and to the 4, deposition in the chicken meat.

25.  Et de quolibet potu empticio prefecto denariata dabitur et preconibus potus cervisiae.
25. And of course pence each drink purchased will be given commendation and drink beer.

26.  Prefectus ad festivitatem sancti Michahelis dabit duobus carnificibus XXVI denarios,
26.  Entry to the feast of St. Michael, two butchers will give 26 pence,
          econtra idem ad festivitatem beati Martini prefecto bovinam carnem XXXII denrios valentem dabunt et insuper unusquisquie carnifex ad nativitatem domini prefectum cum daubus scapulis visitabit.
          On the other hand the same to the governor of the feast of St. Martin 32 denrios value of red meat and will also unusquisquie butcher to the principal of Nativity of the Lord will visit with the shoulders and daub.

27.  Prefectus etiam ad festum sancti Michahelis cuilibet salsuciario VI nummos dabit,
27. Entry is also the feast of St Michael, give money to any salsuciario 6,
          e converso quilibet eorum ad festum sancti Martini prefecto VI bovina capita cum omni jure dabit.
          each of them the other way around to the governor of the feast of St Martin, he will give it all right with the 6 red heads.

28.  Et si aliquis in civitate captus fuerit vel pro pace violata vel etiam si cuiquam reddere deet, salsuciarii eum custodire debent.
28. And if a person has been arrested in the city or for breach of peace or even anyone to Bolton, salsuciarii should keep him. [I cannot figure out where "Bolton" came out of any of that.]

29.  Episcopus tabernam suam tribus talentis reget, et qui eam habet singulis annis ei tribuet XXX solidos et in unaquaque septimana urnam cervisiae.
29. Bishop to his shop three talents will rule, and that it has every year to give 30 shillings a week and in each jar of beer.

[120]
30.  Quocienscumque episcopus ad curiam vel … in expeditionem vel ad consecrationem ibit, prefectus ei duas cirotecas et pilleum et insuper suum sibsidium dabit.
30. Every time the bishop or to the court ... to the campaign or the consecration of the will, appointed him two pair of gloves and cap, and also give his sibsidium.

31.  Si universalis querimonia domino episcopo fuerit facta ex culpa de advocato vel etiam de prefecto et post legitimas inducias satisfacere neglexerint, potestate sua illos privabit.
31. If the bishop of the complaint has been made by the fault of the attorney or the principal of and after the law failed to satisfy the delay, its power to deprive them.

32.  Si quis Augustensium civium spoliatus fuerit extra civitatem, spoliator, si civitatem intraverit, secundum urbanorum justiciam in presenti antequam exeat satisfacere debet. ...
32. If any one has been stripped out of the city of Augsburg, the spoiler, if you enter the city, according to the present before it comes out in the townspeople, and justice must satisfy.  ...

[1] Augsburg.  [2] Regensburg.  [3] Straubing.  [4] Geisenhausen.  [5] Eitingen.  [6] Wergeld = Sühnezahlung für Totschlag oder Verletzung.  [7] Köln.  [8] Rom.

No comments: